064W

Room 64W is the central Tower Kiva at Salmon Pueblo, constructed during the initial Chacoan period around 1090 and used until the 1280s. It is located in the center of Salmon's east-west trending main roomblock. The Tower Kiva measures 8.5 m in diameter at the bench level and 7 m at floor level. The bench, which is 0.75 m wide, encircles the entire kiva. Although this structure is Chacoan in origin, most of the actual deposits recovered from it reflect San Juan reuse over 150 years after the end of the Chacoan period. The Tower Kiva was constructed on a platform 3 m in height, to raise the floor to the second-story level of the surrounding pueblo rooms. Of the 28 strata defined in the Tower Kiva, 19 relate to the San Juan occupation, including the Kiva floor. Other strata include occupational fill, roof-fall, and feature related strata. Chacoan strata were identified in the eastern floor vault (foot drum), which was apparently never used by the San Juan occupants. Eight Chacoan strata were defined. A Chacoan floor was identified but no features were present. In all, 76 features were recorded in the Tower Kiva. Most related to construction - postholes, vigas, beams, or sockets. The list of Chacoan features reused by the San Juan occupants included the central hearth, deflector, western floor vault (foot drum), bench, pilasters, walls, and the original roofing material. Several layers of plaster were identified, including part of a San Juan kiva mural in white paint. During the San Juan occupation, The structure had a subfloor ventilation shaft large enough for a person to crawl through. Four buttresses constructed during the initial Chacoan use surround the kiva structure, located between the outer wall of the kiva and the encircling walls in adjacent rooms. The remaining features relate to the architecture, to ritual, or to other activities inside the kiva. Ritual features included a sand-filled sipapu and two floor vaults, or foot drums, on the east and west sides of the kiva floor. The eastern floor vault contained a number of significant artifacts and remains. Yellow ochre was scattered across its floor, along with a tchamahia, fragments of wooden artifacts, and numerous ceramics. Next to the floor vault were some juniper planks cut to fit the feature; they were 2–3 cm thick and up to 30 cm wide. Many artifacts were found in the kiva, including a carved stone effigy of a female lizard effigy of sandstone, whole ceramic vessels, burned ceramics and basketry, carved stone beads, a cloth bag, a leather pouch, and sandals. An intentional fire (and cremation event) at end of the San Juan occupation ended use of the structure. The heat of the fire twas so intense in localized areas that some artifacts were completely burned, and ceramic vessels were vitrified. In other areas, the fire was less intense, and served to dry out and preserve perishable remains. Thus, numerous botanical items were recovered in situ on the structure's San Juan age floor: corn, beans with pods still attached, prickly pear pads, cholla buds, piñon nuts, and a large piece of squash. The nature of these items indicates that the fire took place in the fall, shortly after harvest time. Tree-ring dates indicate that the structure was built during Salmon's first construction episode at 1090 and used throughout the San Juan occupation to the late 1200s.

Default